Contraception: do men love it and where do men belong? The population of the world has surprisingly increased to an alarming level, which leaves nations worried about the rate of population density. At the same time, the paradox of it is that the financial resources and material resources cannot equilibrate the growth that is occurring in the world population. Another paradox is the irregular population growth. While some nations are undergoing a population boom, others show insignificant growth. The future population growth rate mostly relies on the fertility rate.

However, fertility levels have shown an increase in recent decades. If this trend in fertility rise continues, the world population may reach 9.3 billion in 2050 and 10.1billion in 2100. Hence, the concept of contraception as a method for population control is paramount. In this article, contraception: do men love it and where do men belong? The system of contraception is very old as human existence. For ages, humans have depended on imagination to avoid pregnancy.

Ancient Contraceptive

Ancient calligraphy noted on the Kahun Papyrus dated to 1850 BCE refers to contraceptive procedures using a vaginal pessary of crocodile ordure or faeces. And fermented dough, which created an aggressive environment for sperm. Today, the voluntary control of fertility is highly important to modern society. From a global perspective, countries presently face the problem of fast population growth that has begun to be a menace to human survival. This article, contraception: do men love it and where do men belong? Gives more light below.

Analysis On Growth

However, with this present rate, the world population will be doubled in 40 years. Also, in more socioeconomically disadvantaged countries, populations will be doubled in less than 20 years. On a lesser scale, significant control of reproduction is important to a woman’s ability to attain her personal goals. Also, contribute more to her sense of comfortability. There are factors that affect a patient’s choice of contraceptive methods such as safety, non-contraceptive benefits, efficacy, cost, and personal reasons.

In the early 1980s, men were to playing important role in the health of their women and children. In the late 1980s, women’s empowerment was concentrated on putting aside the negative influence of men on women’s health, mostly their reproductive health. However, research and studies revealed that many men wanted to involve in family planning programs and reproductive health programs. This led to an ascending increase in the participation of men in reproductive health matters.

What is Contraception?

In this title, contraception: do men love it and where do men belong? According to the Oxford dictionary, Contraception is the deliberate use of artificial methods or other techniques to prevent pregnancy as a consequence of sexual intercourse. The use of male and female condoms and abstinence however prevent the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STIs). Contraceptives can be permanent or temporary. 


Contraception methods can predominantly be divided into traditional and modern methods. Modern contraceptive methods include female sterilization, male sterilization, the pill,  intrauterine device (IUD), injectables, implants, male condom, female condom, diaphragm, foam/jelly, lactation amenorrhea method  (LAM),  and emergency contraceptives.  The calendar method, withdrawal method as well use of herbal substances are grouped under traditional methods.

Traditional methods of male contraception have long included periodic abstinence, non-vaginal ejaculation, condoms, and vasectomy, the last two representing physical methods to block sperm from getting to the site of fertilization. However, for male contraception, the reversible methods are not reliable, and the only reliable method is not intended as reversible. 

Hormonal methods

The hormonal methods of contraception are in various forms. The hormonal method of contraception includes every form of contraception that prevents pregnancy by the introduction of some reproductive hormones into the woman’s body. Hormonal contraceptives contain estrogen and progesterone or progesterone only. Some hormonal contraceptives are Long-acting but reversible. This title, contraception: do men love it and where do men belong? Explained further.

The long-acting but reversible contraceptives include Progestogen injections, the Subdermal contraceptive device, and the Progestogen-releasing intrauterine system. The Combined hormonal contraceptive pill, the combined hormone injectable (Lunelle), the combined hormone patch, the combined hormone vaginal ring, and the progestogen-only pills are also hormonal methods of contraceptives.

Barrier method

Spermicide, condoms, sponge diaphragm, and cervical cap is classified as barrier method of contraception. The mechanism of action of the barrier method of contraception is to prevent the fertilization of the oocyte by the spermatozoa. The male and female condoms have the same mechanism of action although the male condom is worn over the penis while the female condom is inserted into the vagina. Condoms prevent pregnancy and STIs by physically containing semen.

During intercourse, it prevents the entry of spermatozoa into the vagina and coming in contact with the oocyte.  When used properly, the male condom is 98% effective at preventing pregnancy while the female condom is 95% effective (FPA, 2011). The use of condoms to prevent pregnancy and STIs is low in Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America despite the substantial problem of Human Immunodeficiency Viruses (HIV) In the article, contraception: do men love it where do men belong? is well deserves its title.

Diaphragm and Spermicide Explained

The diaphragm is not widely used in developing countries. Spermicide works hand in hand with the diaphragm. This spermicide is applied before insertion of the diaphragm. While the diaphragm is inserted to cover the cervix to prevent fertilization. The spermicide applied to the diaphragm kills the spermatozoa. The efficiency of the diaphragm in preventing pregnancy is dependent on the age and experience of the user.

The efficiency of the diaphragm is between 92% and 96% according to FPA (2010). The diaphragm should not be removed until 6 hours after the intercourse. It should be washed, dried, and assessed for damage. Cervical caps cover the cervix only. They are made of rubber and usually smaller than the diaphragm. They are fitted to the cervix by suction. The cervical cap cannot be inserted by the clients themselves. They are usually fixed by the health professional.

Emergency postcoital contraception

Emergency contraception refers to the method of contraception that can be used to prevent pregnancy immediately after sexual intercourse. These are recommended for use within 5 days but are more effective the sooner they are used after the act of intercourse. Emergency contraception includes emergency hormonal contraceptive pills, the selective progesterone receptor modulator, and the copper intrauterine contraceptive device. Refer to the title, contraception: do men love it and where do men belong? Will give more insight to encourage men.

Emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) (eg, Plan B One-Step OTC, anenteric-coated levonorgestrel ECP that dissolves and is absorbed in the intestine), ovulation inhibition effective until the LH surge. Ulipristal acetate (eg, Ella), available by prescription, progesterone-receptor modulator effective in ovulation inhibition through the LH surge. Copper T380 IUD, foreign body effect creates toxic milieu preventing implantation, not effective for emergency contraception after implantation.

Irreversible methods and natural methods

The permanent methods can be done for both males and females. Tubal ligation or occlusion is done surgically for females while a vasectomy is done for males. Tubal ligation or occlusion prevents fertilization of the oocyte and is not effective until three months after the procedure. Vasectomy involves the excision or removal of part of the vas deferens. A vasectomy prevents the passage of sperm from the testes to the penis and is not considered effective until twelve weeks after the procedure. 

According to FPA (2010), the failure rate for female sterilization is 1 in 200 while that of male sterilization is 1 in 2000. The natural methods include the fertility awareness method.  Fertility awareness involves the awareness of the fertile periods in the menstrual cycle. The physiological signs of fertility that the woman looks out for include cervical secretions, basal (waking) body temperature, cervical palpation, and calculation.

Other fertility awareness methods include symptothermal method, using a fertility monitoring device, and the lactational amenorrhea method. The lactational amenorrhea method is used by women who are breastfeeding babies not more than six months old. There is a reduced likelihood of ovulation during lactation in the first month after delivery.

The Lactational amenorrhea method is a viable option for postnatal breastfeeding women as it is rated over 98% effective in preventing pregnancy. Using the withdrawal system is also called coitus interruptus. The withdrawal method is not usually considered a contraceptive method because of its high rate of failure. The withdrawal method according has an effectiveness of 90%. Two delivery methods are presently under serious study: male hormonal contraceptives that can be taken in pill form by mouth, similar to the existing oral contraceptive pill for women, and male hormonal injections.

Contraceptive Methods for Men

Types Of Male Contraceptive

During the 20th century, a wide array of reversible and highly reliable female hormonal contraceptive methods was marketed; however, no new methods for male fertility regulation have been introduced for centuries. For men to share more equally the burdens as well as the benefits of family planning, more effective reversible male contraceptive methods need to be available.

Male contraceptives, also known as male birth control are methods of preventing pregnancy that primarily involve male physiology. The most common kinds of male contraception include condoms, withdrawal or pulling out, and vasectomy. There are other forms of male contraception are in various stages of research and development. These include methods like Vasa gel, Dry-orgasm pill, Hormonal gels, and Gandarusa.

Vasa Gel And Dry Orgasm

The Vasa gel is a non-surgical and reversible method of male contraception. The Vasa gel works like vasectomy but does not involve surgery and is reversible. Unlike vasectomy which involves the cutting of the vas deferens, the Vasa gel is the use of a polymer gel that blocks sperm. It takes three to five days to become effective in preventing pregnancy after the initial injections but the reversal process takes about four months.

Vasa gel has only been tested successfully on rabbits in the United States. The Dry orgasm pill is based on the now-abandoned blood pressure medication. It is a fast-acting, hormone-free pill that temporarily shuts off the muscles that propel semen, but does not inhibit any other part of the sex act including the orgasm. This ensures that the man does not ejaculate during intercourse.

Hormonal Gel And Gandarusa

Hormonal gels are a combination of testosterone/progestin gels that are rubbed into the skin and have been found to inhibit sperm production but without affecting sex drive. Sperm counts return to normal after use stops. The Hormonal gels must be kept away from other partners of the user and children who should not be exposed to the hormones. The Gandarusa is Indonesia’s plant-based solution which is derived from a plant (Justicia genderussa) indigenous to Indonesia.

Native people there had originally used it as an herbal remedy for stress but noticed that it seemed to have contraceptive effects in men. It has been studied in Indonesia since 1985 and is currently in Phase 3 clinical trials there. The compound, which is ingested as a daily pill, is thought to disable the ability of sperm to penetrate the egg but does not have other reported side effects.

Contraception in Africa

In the 19th century, many people were into agriculture and they saw marriage as a way to produce children who will work for them. Children were seen as assets, as the number of children born in a family would determine the workforce of the children and wives as part of the workforce. Having a large family was thus seen as a blessing. The knowledge about the reproductive health of a woman brought about the need to control conception. The traditional methods of contraception were employed to reduce reproductive health issues among women. This article, contraception: do men love it and where do men belong? Can be promoted to encourage men.

The other forms of contraception that were practiced in the pre-colonial African societies include abstinence from sex during pregnancy and the use of beads which were worn on the waist of the women as armlets.  It is believed that the items are usually soaked in potent substances which make the bead serve as a contraceptive. The Traditional Medicine Practitioners (TMPs), who were mostly women, were responsible for providing these traditional contraceptives and administering those including rings and padlocks which were used as clamps on the woman’s vagina to ensure that she abstained from sex within a given period. These were being provided and administered.

Where Do the Men Belong?

Men play important role in regulating women’s access to contraception by regulating their finances, health care decisions, and mobility. A study in Turkey explained that as men play an important role in contraception, it is therefore extremely important to encourage their participation in contraception, particularly in developing countries.  The study also revealed that when a man approves of his partner’s use of contraceptives, it is more likely that there will be sustained use of contraception. 

Involving men is not only about having the men join the women in decision-making but also ensuring that they take action to plan their families, prevent unwanted pregnancy and control the number of children. They can do this by using any of the contraceptive methods available for them. Involving them will increase the number of people that practice contraception. Research by Arwen B. (2007) which was conducted in Tanzania showed that the inclusion of men in the use of contraceptives will increase the total uptake of contraceptives.

The provision of separate space for men to learn about contraception is also a way of improving the knowledge and practice of contraception among men. These separate spaces could be in the outpatient clinics or other convenient places that will suitable to pass the information to men. Existing clinics should also consider improving reproductive health services to men. The study also suggested that male health care providers should be employed to work in the family planning unit as some men requested fellow males as their service providers.

Factors Influencing The Participation Of Men In Contraception

Most men do not participate in contraception because their participation is against cultural norms and because contraception is seen as a woman’s business. The knowledge of men about contraception influences their participation in contraception. Most of the information given about contraception is usually geared toward women. Not all men are informed about family planning. Most women report having got information about contraception from the antenatal clinic which is usually attended by women only. The educational level of men also influences their participation in contraception as it is believed that educated men are more aware of the advantages of family planning.

Culture is an important factor that influences the participation of men in contraception. Most culture sees women like the one responsible for their reproductive health. The reproductive health of women is a concern of the community thus, the burden should be carried by all members of the community. This African culture sees men as the head of the family who should be in charge of other things except for the chores and caring for the children. The culture of leaving the women to the children reduces men’s participation in reproductive health issues. Some cultures value a large family with many children. This kind of cultural belief will prevent the use of contraceptives.

Lack of Information For Men

Lack of information is a major factor that affects men’s involvement in contraception. Most men do not get correct and adequate information about contraception from health care providers or from other sources of information. Some of them have reported that the absence of male health care providers in the family planning clinics reduces their willingness to seek knowledge about contraception. Some married men also know very little about contraception because they have little or no communication with their spouses about contraception.

The most popular modern methods of contraception that are available for men are condoms and vasectomy which is a permanent method. The traditional methods that require men’s cooperation include the withdrawal and abstinence methods. There are few methods of contraception for men compared to the methods available for women. The Imbalance in the methods available suggests that contraception should be more of the woman’s business.

The factors that limit men’s involvement in contraception are perceived side effects of female contraceptive methods that could disrupt sexual activities. Limited choices of available male contraceptives, including fears and concerns relating to vasectomy. Perceptions that reproductive health was a woman’s domain due to gender norms and traditional family planning communication geared towards women. Concerns that women’s use of contraceptives will lead to extramarital sexual relations.

Benefits Of Men’s Participation In Contraception

Contraception contributes to a decline in fertility and is recognized as an effective way to reduce maternal mortality. Despite positive global trends, progress toward universal access to reproductive health, especially in developing countries, is slow and falls short of global targets. The sustainable development goals (SDSs) propose a bold plan to achieve universal access to reproductive health.

Also, to meet the proposed benchmark for demand for family planning satisfied with modern contraceptive methods of 75% by 2030. Efforts to increase access and use of contraceptive methods, such as Family planning, a global movement that aims to enable 120 million more women and girls to use contraceptives by 2020- are critical to achieving the SDGs. However, meeting this goal will be difficult without the active participation of men.

Men’s Role In Family Planning

Men have an important role to play in family planning, particularly in deciding with their partners the number of children to have and which contraceptive method to use. Although data on men are limited, a growing body of research shows that involving men in contraception can increase modern contraceptive use, promote shared decision-making between couples, and help shift the belief that contraception is a woman’s issue. Engaging men across the life cycle as contraceptive users and family planning clients is an opportunity to increase the use of modern contraceptive methods, meet FP2020 targets, and remain on track to achieve SDGs by 2030 (United States Agency International Development [USAID], 2016).

Involving men in contraception is a great tool in solving a lot of public health issues. The rate of unintended pregnancies can be reduced by encouraging the practice of contraception and by encouraging them to support their partners. It is the rate of sexually transmitted disease transmission that can also be reduced by promoting the use of condoms by men or by getting their support for their partners to use the female condoms

The Benefits Of Men’s Participation In Contraception

Reduction in the rate of unintended pregnancy:

The issue of unintended pregnancy among married and unmarried women is a public health problem that can be solved by the use of contraceptive methods. The use of contraceptives by men will prevent unintended pregnancy. When the couple decides that the contraceptive method is to be used as a method for the female, the support of the man will ensure the proper use of the method.

Reduction in the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases:

Research has shown that the transfer of sexually transmitted diseases is easier and more common from men to women than from women to men. The use of condoms by men who have sexually transmitted diseases will prevent the transfer to their partners.

Increase in the uptake of contraception:

Most developing countries have a relatively low uptake of contraceptives. The inclusion of men in those who practice contraception will increase the use of contraception. Also when men encourage their partners to use contraceptives, the uptake increases.

More support for the reproductive health of females:

The participation of men in contraception helps o improve the reproductive health of females, both married and unmarried. The women also get more support for their reproductive health.  Reaching men is a winning strategy for encouraging sexual responsibility. It also helps to foster men’s support of their partners’ contraceptive choices and to address the reproductive health care of couples. The participation of men in contraception can be used to promote gender equality and the transformation of men’s and women’s social roles.

How To Improve Men’s Participation In Contraception

Awareness of men’s interest in contraception:

It is necessary that health workers are aware that men are more interested in contraception than popular opinion paints it. The assumption of the health care provider should not cloud the reality. Knowledge and perception of men about contraception should not be assumed, it should be assessed. The practice of contraception and the factors that influence contraception should also be assessed as it may vary from place to place. This assessment can inform the kind of intervention the men need in order to promote their participation in contraception.

Ensuring easy access to planning services for men:

Men should not be denied access to family planning services. They need information and opportunity to form positive attitudes and communication skills. However, there is limited space for men in most family programs. Providers should warmly welcome male clients to the health care facilities that provide family planning services.

Men have their preferences and needs and particular ways of accessing information and services. They should be seen as family planning clients and users in their own right. Male clients should be offered male and couple methods like condoms, vasectomy, and the standard days’ method. Although men do not often go to clinics for family planning services, they do show up if something is offered that they want.

Use of flyers, magazines, and tracts:

To involve men, it is also important to take note of the other ways of reaching men apart from direct contact. These other methods should be utilized maximally to increase the participation of men in contraception. The women should be coached on how to negotiate with their partners while making decisions on reproductive issues. Women should also be given take-home materials like magazines and tracts for their partners. Other ways to reach the men are also targeting male involvement messages in posters, flyers, radio programs, and wall paintings.

Meeting the men outside the hospital:

It may be difficult to reach men in the clinic, but they can be found in the workplace, community and at home especially during the weekends and evenings. This requires organizational commitment to monitor and reward efforts to reach men and offer flexible work hours. Engaging men in family planning can substantially improve contraceptive practice and reduce sexual violence among married couples.

Use of Digital Marketing, And Social Media Influencers

Digital marketing like email marketing, social media marketing, content marketing, influencer marketing, search engine marketing, and online advertisement can be used to convince men about the importance of contraception for men. These days every man is very close to a mobile phone and the internet. Also, the dissemination of information and messages are very quick and delivered faster to men and people in general.


In conclusion, this article, contraception: do men love it and where do men belong? explains further, that health care providers should come to the awareness that men are more interested in getting involved in contraception, unlike the wrong popular opinion. The ways in which the participation of men in contraception can be improved include. Creation of awareness for men about contraception. Meeting the men in their place of work, home, and in the community. Increasing the number of male health providers in the family planning clinic. Giving take-home materials to women when they visit the family planning clinic.

Also, Improving the contraceptive methods that are available for men. Provision of a separate clinic for men. With the improvement in contraception and reproductive health generally, men should be informed about contraception. Men should be partners with their spouses in issues pertaining to reproductive health as they are partners in other things. Health professionals should ensure that men are not cut off in their provision of family planning services because when the involvement of men does a lot of good to men, women, children, and the community at large.

Written And Researched By,

Aminat Adams Adewale

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